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数控铣床几种对刀方法的分析与比较?

作者:迅鹏数控 来源:迅鹏官网 点击:

  SHUKONGXIANCHUANGFENWEIDAIDAOKUHEBUDAIDAOKULIANGDALEI,QIZHONGDAIDAOKUDESHUKONGXIANCHUANGYOUCHENGWEIJIAGONGZHONGXIN。XUANYONGSHUKONGXIANCHUANGDAOJUSHI,YAOGENJUBEIJIAGONGLINGJIANDEJIHEXINGZHUANG、CAILIAO、BIAOMIANZHILIANGYAOQIU、QIEXUEXINGNENGJIJIAGONGYULIANGDENGXUANZEGANGXINGHAO、NAIYONGDUGAODEDAOJU。XIANDAODEJIAODUYOUQIANJIAO、HOUJIAO、ZHUPIANJIAO、FUPIANJIAO、RENQINGJIAODENG,WEIMANZUBUTONGDEJIAGONGXUYAO,YOUDUOZHONGJIAODUZUHEXINGSHI。

  DUIYUSHUKONGXIANCHUANGJIAGONGERYAN,QIJIAGONGBUZHOUZHUYAOWEIGONGYIFENXI、SHUXUEJISUAN、BIANCHENGJIMONI、DUIDAO、SHIQIE、ZHENGSHIJIAGONGDENGHUANJIE。QIZHONG,BAOZHENGSHUKONGXIANCHUANGJIAGONGZHILIANGDEYIXIANGZHONGYAOHUANJIEJIUSHIDUIDAO,ZHEISHIYOUYUSHUKONGXIANCHUANGBENSHENDEJIAGONGGUOCHENGSHIANZHAOBIANZHICHENGXUJINXINGKONGZHIDE,ZHIYOUJIANLIZHENGQUEHELIDEZUOBIAOXI,CAINENGBAOZHENGDAOJUYUNDONGGUIJIDEHELIXING,JINERBAOZHENGJIAGONGZHILIANG。

  数控铣床坐标系分为机床坐标系和机械坐标系两种,其中机床坐标系是以机床参考点作为坐标原点建立的坐标系,而机械坐标值才是判断刀具位置的重要依据。对于数控铣床来说,由于工件原点是一个“动”点,只有确定工件原点的机械坐标值才能够准确地将编制程序运用到数控铣床加工之中,而想要准确地确定工件原点的机械坐标值就必须通过对刀来实现。
数控铣床几种对刀方法的分析与比较?图

  一、数控铣床对刀前的准备工作

  1、对刀点的确定

  DUIDAODIANSHIGONGJIANZAIJICHUANGSHANGDINGWEIZHUANGJIAHOU,YONGYUQUEDINGGONGJIANZUOBIAOXIZAIJICHUANGZUOBIAOXIZHONGWEIZHIDEJIZHUNDIAN。DUIDAODIANDEZHUNQUEXINGSHIBAOZHENGSHUKONGXIANCHUANGJIAGONGJINGDUDEZHONGYAOQIANTI,YINCIDUIDAODIANDEQUEDINGSHIFENZHONGYAO。“DUIDAODIAN”YOUBEICHENGWEI“QIDAODIAN”HE“CHENGXUQIDIAN”,QIQUEDINGYUANZEYIBANRUXIA:

  (1)DUIDAODIANYAOYOULIYUCHENGXUBIANCHENG;

  (2)DUIDAODIANWEIZHIXURONGYIBEICHAKAN,JINERFANGBIANJIXIEJIAGONG;

  (3)DUIDAODIANWEIZHIXURONGYIBEIJIANYAN,JINERBIANYUTIGAOGONGJIANDEJIAGONGJINGDU;

  (4)ZAIYIBANQINGKUANGXIA,DUIDAODIANCAIYONGDEJUNSHIGONGJIANZUOBIAOXIDEYUANDIAN。

  2、换刀点的确定

  ZAISHUKONGXIANCHUANGJIAGONGGUOCHENGZHONGNANMIANYUDAODUODAOJIAGONG,WULUNSHIZIDONGHUANDAOHAISHISHOUDONGHUANDAO,DOUXUYAOQUEDINGHUANDAODIANDEWEIZHI。YINCI,QUEDINGHUANDAODIANDUIYUSHUKONGXIANCHUANGDUODAOJIAGONGSHIDEJINGDUZHANGWOSHIFENZHONGYAO。YIBANQINGKUANGXIA,HUANDAODIANQUEDINGSHIYIBUYUNXUPENGSHANGDAOJU、JIAJUHEGONGJIANWEIYUANZE,HUANDAODIANZAIJIAGONGGONGJIANDELUNKUOWAI,BINGLIUYOUYIDINGDEANQUANKONGJIAN。

  二、卧式数控铣床多工位加工中的对刀问题

  DUIYUWOSHISHUKONGXIANCHUANG(SHEGONGZUOTAIYANXXIANG、YXIANGYIDONG,ZHUZHOUYANZXIANGYIDONG),DANGZHUZHOUHEGONGZUOTAIFENBIEHUILINGHOU,GONGZUOTAIHUIZHUANZHONGXINJIANGYUJICHUANGCANKAODIANZAISHUIPINGMIANNEIDETOUYINGZHONGHE。

  CISHIGONGZUOTAIHUIZHUANZHONGXINDAOZHUZHOUZHOUXIANYUZHUZHOUQIANDUANMIANDEJIAODIANDEJULIWEIXC、YC;JICHUANGZUOBIAOXIXIAXIANSHIDEZUOBIAOZHICISHIWEILING,DANGZHUZHOUHUOGONGZUOTAIYIDONGHOU,JICHUANGZUOBIAOXIXIASUOXIANSHIDEX、YZHIJIUSHIGONGZUOTAIHUIZHUANZHONGXINXIANGDUIJICHUANGCANKAODIANDEZUOBIAOZHI,ZHUZHOUZHONGXINXIANGDUIJICHUANGYUANDIANDEZZUOBIAOZHI。

  ZAIQUEDINGDEGONGWEI,YIDONGZHUZHOU(YANZXIANGYIDONG)HEGONGZUOTAI(YANX、YXIANGYIDONG),SHISUOXUANDEGONGJIANYUANDIANZAIXXIANG、YXIANGYUZHUZHOUZHOUXIANZHONGHE,ZAIZXIANGYUZHUZHOUQIANDUANMIANZHONGHE,JIDAOWEIDIANYUGONGJIANYUANDIANZHONGHE,ZHEISHIGONGZUOTAIHUIZHUANZHONGXINZAIJICHUANGZUOBIAOXIZHONGDEZUOBIAOZHI,JIWEIGAIGONGWEISHIGONGJIANZUOBIAOXIYUANDIANZAIJICHUANGZUOBIAOXIZHONGDEZUOBIAOZHI。

  JIANGCIZHISHURUDAOLINGDIANPIANZHIJICUNQIXIANGYINGWEIZHI,JIUKESHIYONGG54-G59ZHILINGJIANLIGONGJIANZUOBIAOXI。RUOSHIYONGG92ZHILINGJIANLIGONGJIANZUOBIAOXI,ZEDAOWEIDIANYEWEIZHUZHOUZHOUXIANYUZHUZHOUQIANDUANMIANDEJIAODIAN,ZHUZHOUHEGONGZUOTAIDEQISHIWEIZHI(CHENGXUQIDIAN)DOUZAILINGDIAN,ZESHURUDAOLINGDIANPIANZHIJICUNQIDEZHIDEFUZHIJIWEIG92ZHILINGHOUDEX、Y、ZZUOBIAOZHI。

  三、数控铣床几种对刀方法的分析比较

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  1、对刀点为圆柱孔的中心线

  (1)CAIYONGQIANFENBIAODUIDAO。GAIZHONGCAOZUOFANGFABIJIAOMAFAN,XIAOLVJIAODI,DANDUIDAOJINGDUJIAOGAO,DUIBEICEKONGDEJINGDUYAOQIUJIAOGAO,GAIFANGFASHIYONGYUJINGGUOJIAOHUOTANGJIAGONGDEKONG,DUIYUCUJIAGONGHOUDEKONGBUYICAIYONGGAIFANGFA。

  TU1 BAIFENBIAO(QIANFENBIAO)DUIDAOSHIYITU

  (2)CAIYONGXUNBIANQIDUIDAO。GUANGDIANSHIXUNBIANQIYIBANYOUBINGBUHECHUTOUZUCHENG,LIANGZHEZHIJIANCUNYOUYIGEGUDINGDEDIANWEICHA。DANGCHUTOUZHUANGZAIJICHUANGZHUZHOUSHANGSHI,GONGZUOTAISHANGDEGONGJIANYUCHUTOUDIANWEIXIANGTONG,DANGCHUTOUYUGONGJIANBIAOMIANJIECHUSHIJIUXINGCHENGHUILUDIANLIU,SHINEIBUDIANLUCHANSHENGGUANG、DIANXINHAO。GAIFANGFAYUQIANFENBIAODUIDAOXIANGBIJIAO,CAOZUOJIANDAN,DANJINGDUJIAODI。

  TU2 GUANGDIANSHIXUNBIANQIDUIDAOSHIYITU

  2、对刀点为两相互垂直直线的交点

  (1)采用碰刀方式对刀。对于精度要求不高的加工,可以采用加工时所使用的刀具直接进行碰刀对刀,该方法比较实用,但由于其产生碰刀就会在工件表面留下痕迹,进而影响到对刀精度。为避免损伤工件表面,可以在刀具和工件之间加入塞尺进行对刀,在编程计算时就应将塞尺的厚度减去。
数控铣床几种对刀方法的分析与比较?图

  (2)JIWAIDUIDAOYIDUIDAO。JIWAIDUIDAOYISHIYONGLAICELIANGDAOJUDEZHANGDU、ZHIJINGHEDAOJUXINGZHUANG、JIAODUDEZHUANYEGONGJU。YONGJIWAIDUIDAOYIHAIKECELIANGDAOJUQIEXUERENDEJIAODUHEXINGZHUANGDENGCANSHU,YOULIYUTIGAOJIAGONGZHILIANG。ZAISHIYONGDUIDAOYISHIYINGZHUYIYIXIAWENTI:

  SHIYONGQIANYAOYONGBIAOZHUNDUIDAOXINZHOUJINXINGXIAOZHUN,MEICISHIYONGQIANYAODUIZZHOUHEXZHOUCHICUNJINXINGXIAOZHUNHEBIAODING;

  JINGTAICELIANGDEDAOJUCHICUNHESHIJIJIAGONGCHUDECHICUNZHIJIANYOUYICHAZHI,JINGTAICELIANGDEDAOJUCHICUNYINGDAYUJIAGONGHOUKONGDESHIJICHICUN,YINCIDUIDAOSHIYAOKAOLVYIGEXIUZHENGLIANG,YIBANGAIXIUZHENGLIANGYIKAOCAOZUOZHEDEJINGYANYUXUAN,YIBANYAOPIANDA0.01~0.05mm。

  3、刀具Z向对刀

  Z向对刀一般有两种方法:

  (1)JISHANGDUIDAO:GAIFANGFASHICAIYONGZXIANGSHEDINGQIYICIQUEDINGMEIBADAOJUYUGONGJIANZAIJICHUANGZUOBIAODEXIANGHUWEIZHIGUANXI。

  (2)JISHANGDUIDAOPEIHEJIWAIDAOJUYUDIAO,GAIFANGFADUIDAOJINGDUHEXIAOLVGAO,DANTOUZIDA。

  对刀是影响数控铣床加工质量的一项重要环节,在数控铣床对刀前必须做好对刀点和换刀点的确定,进而确定工件坐标系在机床坐标系中位置的基准点。数控铣床的对刀方法有很多种,不同对刀方法有着不同特点,无论采用何种工具对刀,目的都是为了使机床主轴轴线与刀具端面的交点与对刀点重合,提高加工精度,促进机械加工产业的快速发展。
  上述就是迅鹏数控官网为您整理的数控铣床的几种对刀方法的分析与比较,希望对您有所帮助。

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